[ Epub ] ❦ The Anarchy: The East India Company, Corporate Violence, and the Pillage of an Empire Author William Dalrymple – Paperless-kitchen.info

[ Epub ] ❦ The Anarchy: The East India Company, Corporate Violence, and the Pillage of an Empire Author William Dalrymple – Paperless-kitchen.info From The Bestselling Author Of Return Of A King, The Story Of How The East India Company Took Over Large Swaths Of Asia, And The Devastating Results Of The Corporation Running A CountryIn August , The East India Company Defeated The Young Mughal Emperor And Set Up, In His Place, A Government Run By English Traders Who Collected Taxes Through Means Of A Private ArmyThe Creation Of This New Government Marked The Moment That The East India Company Ceased To Be A Conventional Company And Became Something Much Unusual An International Corporation Transformed Into An Aggressive Colonial Power Over The Course Of The Next Years, The Company S Reach Grew Until Almost All Of India South Of Delhi Was Effectively Ruled From A Boardroom In The City Of London The Anarchy Tells One Of History S Most Remarkable Stories How The Mughal Empire Which Dominated World Trade And Manufacturing And Possessed Almost Unlimited Resources Fell Apart And Was Replaced By A Multinational Corporation Based Thousands Of Miles Overseas, And Answerable To Shareholders, Most Of Whom Had Never Even Seen India And No Idea About The Country Whose Wealth Was Providing Their Dividends Using Previously Untapped Sources, Dalrymple Tells The Story Of The East India Company As It Has Never Been Told Before And Provides A Portrait Of The Devastating Results From The Abuse Of Corporate Power William Dalrymple tells how a single business operation replaced the Mughal empire to rule the Indian subcontinent The East India Company was a first major multi national corporation, and an early example of a joint stock enterprise Most events occur between 1756 1803, around the time of the American and French revolutions The story begins in 1599 with the charter of the Company, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and the life of Shakespeare.The Company was preceded by Sir Walter Raleigh a William Dalrymple tells how a single business operation replaced the Mughal empire to rule the Indian subcontinent The East India Company was a first major multi national corporation, and an early example of a joint stock enterprise Most events occur between 1756 1803, around the time of the American and French revolutions The story begins in 1599 with the charter of the Company, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and the life of Shakespeare.The Company was preceded by Sir Walter Raleigh and Francis Drake and included veteran Carribean privateers, state sponsored pirates who attacked the Spanish armada for gold and silver The first Company voyage brought back spice from Indonesia by robbing a Portuguese ship Outdone by the Dutch in the spice trade, the Company began trade in India with the benefits of a British monopoly, rights to raise an army and control territory, licensed by the Crown.At the time of the Company s expansion of influence the Mughal Empire had been weakened by a series of invasions and internal conflicts Increasing intolerance pushed Maratha rebels under Shivaji to strike north from the Deccan plateau in the late 17th century Sikhs struck south from the Punjab Prince fought against prince In 1739 the Persian warlord Nader Shah sacked Delhi, and made off with the spoils of an empire The period is known as the Anarchy.Construction of fortifications at the British port in Bengal provoked the local Nawab and Mughal army to destroy the trading post in 1756 Captured British were thrown into the so called Black Hole of Calcutta where a significant number died from trampling and suffocation Robert Clive, a violent and ruthless soldier of fortune hired by the Company, would defeat and plunder the Mughals and oust the French from Bengal, returning home the richest man in Europe.Clive later returned to become the governor of Bengal and replaced the Mughals as tax collectors from the wealthiest lands on the subcontinent The Company would amass a private army twice the size of Britain s Famine and war would cause a massive bailout in 1773 by the Crown Opium shipped east resulted in war with China, and tea shipped west triggered the American revolution At it s height the Company would account for over a third of global trade.Dalrymple s unifying narrative source is the Mughal court historian Ghulam Hussain Khan s epic Review of Modern Times He also has scoured the India Office collection in London and National Archives in Delhi As he notes in the introduction English and Mughal records of the period are extensive His great contribution may be in pulling it all together and presenting it in an entertaining and edifying manner His talented storytelling is clearly evident How did a mercantile proposition turn into the largest private army in the world, that was able to conquer practically all of India including Pakistan and Bangladesh Originally given the Royal English Charter in 1600, to be the exclusive English rights to trade with South India, the East India Company EIC, the Company began with one ship and cargo until in the end they controlled directly or indirectly an area with a population of over 250 million.Beginning in the middle 1700s, the EIC came How did a mercantile proposition turn into the largest private army in the world, that was able to conquer practically all of India including Pakistan and Bangladesh Originally given the Royal English Charter in 1600, to be the exclusive English rights to trade with South India, the East India Company EIC, the Company began with one ship and cargo until in the end they controlled directly or indirectly an area with a population of over 250 million.Beginning in the middle 1700s, the EIC came into conflict with the French merchants who were also creating trading factories warehouses on the east coast of India, and the Portuguese on the west They started by capturing each others ships and stealing the cargoes, until they then began to attack each others factories This became especially violent during all of the Anglo French Wars during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries The Company built armies that were made up of a few English Officers and Sepoy Indian Troops They were smart enough to use soldiers from one Indian empire against the others, playing all the Rulers against each other till they were so powerful that no one in India was powerful enough to challenge them.In 1857 a large part of the Sepoy soldiers revolted against the Company There was much damage and bloodshed before the rebellion could be put down The English government realized that they couldn t continue to allow merchant house to control the jewel in the crown of english colonies So over the next few years they took away control and in 1874 the Company was dissolved But using the bureaucracy created by the Company, Britain continued to rule India until 1947 There was a lot of good and interesting information in this book, but it was hard to get through I think it just need to be trimmed and cleaned up a bit. Reads much like a textbook and you must really be interested to dothan skim The photos are really helpful. I was granted an ARC of this via Netgalley from the publisher Imagine if a multinational corporation not only was a global leader in trade but also had at its beck and call an army which it used to subjugate other countries to protect its profits and interests It may seem like a farfetched scenario but in the past a corporation with these characteristics existed The East India Company The rise and excesses of what would become the world s first great multinational corporation, are descr I was granted an ARC of this via Netgalley from the publisher Imagine if a multinational corporation not only was a global leader in trade but also had at its beck and call an army which it used to subjugate other countries to protect its profits and interests It may seem like a farfetched scenario but in the past a corporation with these characteristics existed The East India Company The rise and excesses of what would become the world s first great multinational corporation, are described in The Anarchy The East India Company, Corporate Violence and the Pillage of an Empire by William Dalrymple This isn t Dalrymple s first time writing about topics concerning India, but this is his first book on the topic of the Company With this work, Dalrymple wishes not only to relay the history of the Company but also to show the reader the danger of corporations operating unregulated.With hindsight, it might seem that the Company was destined for success, however, Dalrymple points out that its rivals were better funded, had been at the game longer and had better luck in their endeavors The result of inadequate funding was a small company with small fleets, and no capital of its own Circumstances, however, conspired to change that once the Company began to focus on India Once they obtained a foothold in India, the Company began conducting business with the local authorities who owned allegiance to the Mughal Empire But as one observer describes When they first came to this country they petitioned the then government in a humble manner for the liberty to purchase a spot of ground to build a factory house upon they have enticed several merchants and others to go and take protection under them and collect a revenue which amounts to Rs 100,000 They rob and plunder and carry a great number of the king s subjects of both sexes into slavery The author then details how the Company went from just doing business to becoming a local power player to becoming the de facto ruler of India guided by the leadership of men like Robert Clive, Charles Cornwallis and Richard Wellesley But he also highlights the actions of Indian leaders in the Company s story, such as Emperor Shah Alam and Tipu of Mysore Showing the story from both the English and Indian perspectives and using firsthand accounts to show what was going on in the subcontinent is one of the strengths of this book It gives the reader a better understanding of the choices made by both sides and why Indian rulers felt siding with the Company was a better choice than fighting or vice versa The author also seems to enjoy profiling the leaders on both sides especially Shah Alam, the Mughal Emperor and tragic figure At times, these profiles go into details that can make them seem like a distraction from the discussion of the Company but fleshing out these individual s personalities adds gravity to the effects that greed and mistrust had on both sides.Dalrymple also shows how many powerful corporations today share similar characteristics to the Company such as threatening to move to greener pastures if local governments imposed higher taxes, putting profit before the local community s welfare and when facing bankruptcy asking for government to bail them out But while these comparisons are spread throughout the book, these points tend to get lost in the historical narrative It is not until the very last chapter that the line from the Company to the corporations of the present is driven home for reader While Dalrymple assures us that corporations today aren t exactly like those of Company, in that they don t have armies and navies, he does remind us that the most powerful among them do not need their own armies they can rely on governments to protect their interests and bail them out Dalrymple writes an informative history on the East India Company and the unchecked greed that drove it to eventually wield the power of a nation state in India Not only does the reader get an inside look at the Company s rise but also an in depth look at how the major players, both English and Indian, at times inadvertently, aided the Company to the detriment of the Indian populace and the enrichment of the Company and Britain In a time when corporations seempowerful than ever, The Anarchy is a cautionary tale that we would be remiss to ignore From the first paragraph of the Introduction, we re left in no doubt this is all about loot, which is, I now know, a Hindi word The East India Company was a legal gangster enterprise dreamt up by men, many of whom we would regard as pirates, during the reign of Elizabeth I It s a page turner, which is quite something for a work which also appears to have impeccable scholarship Few people come out of it well the Indian aristocracy are greedy and foolish, the British are greedier and unscrupu From the first paragraph of the Introduction, we re left in no doubt this is all about loot, which is, I now know, a Hindi word The East India Company was a legal gangster enterprise dreamt up by men, many of whom we would regard as pirates, during the reign of Elizabeth I It s a page turner, which is quite something for a work which also appears to have impeccable scholarship Few people come out of it well the Indian aristocracy are greedy and foolish, the British are greedier and unscrupulous The very few exceptions to downright nastiness are Shah Alam and Warren Hastings It s also a really good overview of an excellent example of the relationship between capitalism and imperialism It sparked my curiosity about the social history involved, which Dalrymple does not really go into For example, the Company sepoys by the turn of the 19th Century, they were well paid What was their story What was their family background Did they form, in effect, an heriditary caste I d love to read really good social history of the Company and Indian Army and its personnel When I get time I ll go through his sources So who were the East India Company In this short video DalrympleWill introduces his new book TheAnarchy The Relentless Rise of the East India Company, out now. This is another scholarly work of India s colonial history , written with as much panache , passion and verve as I have come to expect from the finest living historian of colonial India , focusing on the anarchic period in Hindusthan triggering after the death of the last Mughal super power Aurangzeb in 1707 an emperor who collected ten timesrevenue than his contemporary King of France Louis XIV and contributed to a quarter of global GDP during his reign continuing till 1804 when the Ea This is another scholarly work of India s colonial history , written with as much panache , passion and verve as I have come to expect from the finest living historian of colonial India , focusing on the anarchic period in Hindusthan triggering after the death of the last Mughal super power Aurangzeb in 1707 an emperor who collected ten timesrevenue than his contemporary King of France Louis XIV and contributed to a quarter of global GDP during his reign continuing till 1804 when the East India Company a mere merchant company of joint stock holders , established themselves , through every trick in the book of politics , as the unchallenged sovereign master over a vast Indian subcontinent the jewel in the British crown as it eventually came to be known , an event that really has no parallel in all of history In this context , The Anarchy is the prequel for Dalrymple s earlier masterpiece The Last Mughal which chronicles the life of Bahadur Shah Zafar and Delhi caught up in the great revolt of 1857.This brilliant work , Dalrymple s latest , details not only these tricks, intrigues , subterfuge , chicanery and devious diplomatic policies unleashed to loot rape and plunder one of the world s wealthiest nations , but also the supreme political cunning , agility and foresight by which EIC the world s first corporate superpower became de facto ruler and overlords of all the various factional powers which included the last independent Nawab of Bengal Siraj, the dethroned Mughal prince and eventual puppet king Shah Alam, the valiant Nawab of Avadh Shuja ud Daulah, the rebel Mir Qashim, the immensely influential banking clan of Jagat Seths even wealthier than their European counterpart the Rothschilds , the vast and powerful Maratha Confederacy , the destructive Rohillas, the glorious Mysore Sultanate of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan , the Nizams of Hyderabad and of course the French their bitter transcontinental rivals in the mere period of fifty years This is a book steeped in authentic history footnotes and bibliography at the end alone cover 100 pages , based on Persian ,Urdu and Arabic texts of contemporaneous period and not, as is the usual case of revisionist works of history , on ideologically biased post colonial texts that often skews and subverts narratives in the service of the former Dalrymple s gaze is neutral , wise , penetrating ,digging into the heart of every conflict and political manoeuvre with the skill and magic of an epic novelist , while maintaining historical integrity so much so that neither the colonials nor the colonised emerges either in simple black and white It s the immensely complex greys of characters , situations and circumstances that comes alive , in all their multiplicity of shades in Dalrymple s vivid prose More than anything it shows in unerring detail the machinations of commerce and the role of ruthless financial dealings and subterfuge undertaken by EIC in conjunction with the displaced Nawabs and the banking clans which ultimately sealed the fate of this country for the next 150 years till its independence, something that many other scholarly works on colonial history have failed to adequately portray.A stunning achievement Anarchy The rise of the East India CompanyThe rule of British in India was started by a company based out of London the East India Company Surprisingly, it was not the British government that conquered the Indian subcontinent but a small company based out of London This is surprising in many ways because typically conquests have been done by rival powers from different parts of the world Like the Mongols, the Mughals, etc but the East India Company was a group of merchants who wanted to hav Anarchy The rise of the East India CompanyThe rule of British in India was started by a company based out of London the East India Company Surprisingly, it was not the British government that conquered the Indian subcontinent but a small company based out of London This is surprising in many ways because typically conquests have been done by rival powers from different parts of the world Like the Mongols, the Mughals, etc but the East India Company was a group of merchants who wanted to have a trading post in India They wanted to mimic the Dutch and others who had set up companies in Asia and were quite profitable in the trade of spices, tea, etc This way the East India Company started trading with very little investment It got a monopoly and it was nothing spectacular in its dealings in the initial years.India during that time was ruled by the Mughals and the various Nawabs as feudal vessels under the Mughals The country was one of the largest economies of the world, the royal power of the Mughals was so significant and they were not so bothered about the Britishers trading in the outpost of marshy Calcutta and Madras.In two hundred years the East India Company managed to become a military power conquered India and became so powerful evenpowerful than the British government William Dalrymple s recent book Anarchy is a book on this extraordinary series of events that culminated in the rise of the East India Company in the Indian subcontinent.The book is brilliant, it is written with a gripping narrative and the story moves effortlessly to multiple places and personalities and keeps us engaged throughout It draws from a lot of sources to give a clear picture of what were the changes that were happening in India and in the world which resulted in the rise of East India company.It is also full of extraordinary characters, like ambitious Britishers like Robert Clive who wanted to prove themselves The Mughal King Shah Alam who is suave and artistic but incapable of defending the vast empire, the various Nawab who rule smaller states like Alveridi Khan, his cruel grandson Siraj ud Daula who was defeated by Robert Clive in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and so on.There are multiple factors which seem to have contributed to the rise of the East India Company.Weakening of Mughal Rule The Mughal rule seems to have weakened due to various factors but the fundamental thing I have observed is in any dynasty, the military ambition and strength of rulers diminish over a time, the vigor and might of say Babar and Akbar is not shared by subsequent rulers, they areartistic and culturally inclined and are no so interested in conquest Hence the empire when it is as large as the Mughals, the subordinate feudal vessels tend to start re ascertain their power For instance, Shah Alam is no match to the ruthlessness of the company officials like Robert Clive.Economic Nature of the East India Company The East India Company had a crucial difference over the other powers, it represented the capitalistic world order while the other powers were feudal This advantage is fundamental in my opinion, feudal kings wanted to expand their empires as a mark of their prestige, economic calculation of profit and loss was not central to them Driven by its share prices, the company was always cognizant of the economic angle in any conflict it is getting interesting It found out early through its conflict with Siraj ud Daula that it can benefit immensely by getting economic benefits as direct cash or through the right to collect taxes It is so strange that the East India Company got the right to collect taxes from the provinces of Bengal Traditionally governments collected taxes because they provide services to people, even a feudal king in this sense is responsible to the people by investing money in public works like digging canal, supporting artists and artisans in the court, supporting traditional religious festivals, etc The East India company collected humongous taxes and just shipped it back to Britain as profits to the East India company This is atrocious if you look at it with any common sense The tax when invested creates value and wealth in any economy this is fundamental to any country to progress, this is how progress and development happens The company silently shipped so much of wealth to Britain back to its shareholders Post the British took over Bengal was affected by a massive famine in which millions of people died, the East India company barring few efforts didn t do anything to the relief of people In that sense they are incomparable to any of the earlier invaders into India, probably they can only be compared to Nader Shah who looted Delhi and considerably weakened Delhi Even he looted once, the East Indian company s loot was so systemic and established as a process through its cruel taxation regime Even when the famine was acute in Bengal the amount of taxes collected and shipped to Britain was maintained at such high levels as normal years.Earlier rulers who invaded India like the Mughals integrated themselves into the nation, they saw themselves as belonging to this country They contributed to the economic development, they patronized art and so on In every sense what the East India Company did can only be considered as loot.Indian rulers didn t seem to understand the nature of the company they thought them to be a feudal king and expected similar norms as from a respectable king Some of the kings thought Robert Clive to be a king or from royal aristocracy but they were employees employed by a ruthless company Hence the company didn t have any succession battles and was able to replace with talented men to run the East India company.Major problem with Indian powers like the Maratha, Tipu s Mysore Kingdom is they had brutal fights within themselves owing to succession issues They also were economically unreliable, many time waste precious resources in useless wars and battles The East India Company on the contrary to the Indian powers were able to raise money easily due to huge revenues they are gaining from Bengal This money funded further expansion over the whole of India The lack of unity among the Indian powers also prevented them from putting a combined front against the British.The company were systematically able to eliminate the powers through a series of wars against the Tipu sultan first and then followed by the war against the Marathas The company was able to effectively isolate these powers and were win using superior economic power.All this and many other fortuitous circumstances resulted in the rise of East India Company as a predominant power in India at the end of the 18th century The Mughals were reduced to a symbolic ruler but the real power was wresting with the company which they held until 1857 when post the first war of independence the British government took over.As I finished the book I felt like living through those years as a reader and in that regard, Dalrymple has succeeded in writing an interesting story

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